Chief Specialist of the Department for Prevention of Infectious Diseases of the National Center for Public Health of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan Gulmira Utepova informed about what is dangerous measles and how to avoid it?
Gulmira Askarovna, please tell us how dangerous is measles?
Measles is a very contagious infection with an airborne transmission mechanism.
The source of infection becomes a person in the final incubation phase, i.e. latent period and within 4-5 days from the start of skin rashes. In case of development of complications, the sick person releases the virus longer - 9-11 days. The measles infection virus is found in large quantities in the smallest droplets of secretion on the surface of all the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. The child and the adult actively secrete the virus during coughing and sneezing, as well as during normal conversation. Thus, the airborne transmission mechanism for measles infection is realized.
How does the infection spread?
A distinctive feature of measles - the causative agent of infection spreads over a considerable distance. In addition, the virus has the ability to quickly spread not only horizontally but also along a vertical surface. In this way - through the ventilation shafts and staircases, measles is distributed in high-rise buildings.
How does the disease manifest?
Usually, an increase in the incidence occurs in the cold season, when there is a longer stay of people in a closed room. In the initial period of the disease, the patient manifests general malaise, severe headache, sleep is disturbed and appetite worsens. The body temperature rises, in severe form it can reach 40 ° C.
Already in the first days of the disease, a person has a severe runny nose with mucous discharge, constant [dry cough] (https://medside.ru/suhoy-kashel) </ u> **, ** puffiness of the eyelids conjunctivitis. After 3-8 days, a bright maculopapular exanthema appears on the patient's body, which gradually merges.
When measles is infected during pregnancy, penetration of the measles virus through the placenta and fetal intrauterine infection is noted. The vertical transmission of this infectious disease leads to the development of congenital measles.
What can be complications?
In cases of measles, complications such as pneumonia often occur, children can also have false croup, sometimes stomatitis, adults during the pigmentation period can develop [meningitis] (https://medside.ru/meningit), meningoencephalitis and polyneuritis. The most serious complication of measles is measles encephalitis.
After suffering the disease remains a tense immunity throughout life.
Tell us about preventive measures.
Measles prevention is divided into planned and emergency. With routine prophylaxis, timely vaccination is the most effective measure. According to the vaccination calendar adopted in the Republic of Kazakhstan, vaccination is carried out at the age of 12-15 months (once). Revaccination (re-introduction of the vaccine) is also carried out once at the age of 6 years, before entering school. Combination measles, rubella and parotitis vaccine (PCP) and monovalent vaccine are used to immunize the population against measles.
Emergency prophylaxis is carried out no later than 72 hours from the moment of contact with the patient. Persons under 30 years of age who were in close contact with non-immunized measles patients, without immunization data, or who do not have a second dose of vaccination against this infection, are given emergency immunization with a monovalent vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella vaccine.
It is necessary to isolate the patient, carry out medical observation of contact points, hospitalize them in a timely manner in the event of illness, often ventilate the room, the population needs to limit visits to various public events during the rise in measles.
What advice can you give to parents on the eve of holidays?
In anticipation of the New Year, matinees are held everywhere.
Addressing parents, I would like to recommend restricting children who have not received vaccination to visit crowded places (shopping centers, mornings, etc.).
In the event of the first symptoms of the disease, immediately contact the organization of primary health care, strictly follow the recommendations of the doctor, do not refuse the proposed treatment, as well as receive vaccinations according to the established calendar.