Uralsk region was founded on March 10, 1932. In 1992, it was renamed West Kazakhstan region. West Kazakhstan region borders with Orenburg region of Russia in the north, Aktobe region of Kazakhstan in the east, Atyrau region of Kazakhstan and Astrakhan region of Russia in the south, Volgograd and Saratov regions of Russia in the west, Samara region of Russia in the north-west. The region’s territory is 151339 sq km.
The regional center is in Uralsk. The number of the city residents makes 245.5 thousand people. It is one of the oldest cities of Kazakhstan which was founded in 1613 in accordance with the official version. It is a large industrial and cultural center of the region. The city has many interesting historic and cultural monuments. I.Krylov, A.Pushkin, V.Zhukovsky, V.Dal, T.Shevchenko, M.Utemisov, S.Mukanov, M.Sholokhov and others visited the city in different years.
The region is located in the central part of Eurasia in the north-west of Kazakhstan. The landscape of the territory is flat. The altitude decreases from the north-east to the south-west of the region. The region has several districts in accordance with the landscape – Common Szert, Emba Plateau, Caspian Lowland. The branches of the Common Szyrt and Pre-Urals Plateau are located in the north and north-east of the region. The highest point of the region is Ichka mountain. Its height is 259 meters above the sea level.
River and lakes
The region has about 200 small and big rivers with the total
length of 4600 km. The largest of them are Ural River, Chagan River, Derkul
River, Kushum River, etc. There are also 144 lakes in the region 94 of which
are saline lakes. The biggest lakes are Shalkar, Rybnyi Sakryp and Kamysh-Samara
lakes system. Chalkar Lake is the deepest and biggest reservoir of West
Kazakhstan region. The lake collects about 1.4 billion cubic meters of water.
The biggest area of the region is 24000 ha. Two rivers – Grand Ankaty and Small
Ankaty disgorge into the lake from the east side. Ural River flows in the north
of West Kazakhstan region. 250 km of the River are located in the territory of
the region. Ural River is one of the main water arteries of national importance
not only for Kazakhstan, but also for Russia.
The climate is extremely continental. The winds blow high through the year. Dry hot winds are very frequent in the summer. The average temperature of January is -14, July - +25. The annual precipitation is 250 mm in the south of the region and 400 mm in the north.
The regional population number makes 626.4 thousand people. The urban population reaches 44.9% and the rural makes 55.1%. The region has 2 cities, 12 administrative districts, 159 rural districts, 4 township districts and 746 villages.
West Kazakhstan region is an agro-industrial region of the country. The regional economy is based on the industrial productions. ItsshareintheGRPmakes 55.1%.
The ore mining sector has the biggest share in the real sector of the economy – 90%. The processing industry’s share makes 7.7%, electricity, gas, heat supply and air conditioning – 1.9%, water supply, sewerage system, control over collection and processing of wastes – 0.4%.
The processing industry is mostly presented by the food production (33.5%), oil products (25.9%), engineering productions (16.3%), metallurgical industry (5.6%).
The agricultural sector of the region specializes in production of grain and animal products. Alongside with the grain, the region plants oil and cereals products, potato, vegetables, melons and fruits.
The region has a well-developed transport and communications system meeting the demands of the population and business entities for high quality services. The transport complex of the region consists of railways, car roads, air and water transport.
The railway complex of the region operates West-East railway running through Saratov and Aktobe and Saratov-Aktobe railway. The total length of regional railways makes 465.7 km.
Three air corridors run through the territory of the region. “Akzhol” airport is a modern twenty-four-hour international airport with customs clearance, frontier, sanitary and veterinary control. Regular flights to cities of Kazakhstan – Astana, Almaty, Aktau, Atyrau and to the CIS and non-CIS cities are performed from the airport.
Ural River is the main waterway of the region crossing it from the north to the south and providing an exit to the Caspian basin countries. Water connection between Uralsk, Atyrau and Aktau cities is available. Forest products, construction materials, metal structures, containers, fuel and lubricants are transported on the regional waterways.
The total length of the regional roads makes 5235.35 km. The majority of it – 5217.55 km is regional and district roads. All kinds of modern communication are available in the region.
The first tribes of nomads appeared in the region 1 thousand year B.C. Ancient Pechenegs, Oghuzs, Kipchaks inhabited the region were involved in ranching and folk crafts.
In the early 15th century, after the collapse of the Golden Horde, the region’s territory became a part of the Nogai Horde and later of the Kazakh Khanate.
The land of the region is rich with historical events. In September 1773, the Peasant was led by E.Pugachev began near Iaik town (present Uralsk) which lasted for two hundred years. After Pugachev was defeated and put to death, Empress Catherine II decreed to rename Iaik River in Ural and Iaik town in Uralsk in January 1775.
In the 18-19th centuries many rebellions were excited against the czarist regime in the territory of the region. In 1783-1797, Syrym Datov raised the people to rebellion, in 1836-1838, a rebellion under the leadership of Isatai Taimanov and Mukhambet Utemissov was excited.
The region is the motherland of such outstanding figures of Kazakhstan as composers Kurmangazy and Dauletkerei, Dina Nurpeissova and Mukhit, poets Z.Moldagaliyev and T.Zharokov, etc.
During the World War II, Uralsk region was the nearest home front of the Stalingrad Battle. There are 4 Heroes of the Soviet Union, 6 full Cavaliers of the Order of Glory among the veterans of the region. Manshuk Mametova – the first Asian woman awarded the Title of the Hero of the Soviet Union is one of them.
From December 1991 onward, West Kazakhstan region together with the rest of the country builds a new independent state – the Republic of Kazakhstan making a contribution to economic, social and cultural development of the country.